"We reduce art to its simplest expression, which
is love" said Surrealist writer Andre Breton , who came to be
regarded by his colleagues as "master of thought". The critic, poet
and revolutionary was born in Tinchebray Orne, France on February
18, 1896, in the midst of a middle class family. Although he never
spoke of his childhood or studies, it is known that at an early age
became interested in medicine and psychiatry. According to
biographical data available, at age 19 he focused on neurosurgery
in accordance with the theoretical postulates of Sigmund Freud, and
in his professional life, he worked in hospitals in the city of
Paris, where he pioneered the psychiatric movement.
Still very young he made contact with the art world through the Dada group in 1916, along with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault, one of the founders of the French magazine Literature in 1919. It was 1920 when Breton began his writing career by collaborating with Soulpault in writing of magnetic fields, text referring to automatic writing, one that does not obey reason or morality, his first Surrealist text with an incision Dadaist. In 1921 he married Simones Kahn; 13 years later, separately, he married Jacqueline Lamba, with whom he had his daughter Aube, who was the muse of his poem love crazy; 10 years later, in 1944, he divorced to marry now with Elisa Claro. In 1924, André published his Manifesto of Surrealism, which created a stir in the surrealist thought, whose leadership brought together people like Antonin Artaud and Paul Eluard. He promoted revolution, lashed out against the system and all the official culture of that time. In 1927 he joined the Communist Party, of which six years later was expelled. Meanwhile, he published two of his most important texts: Surrealism in the service of the revolution and Surrealism and painting, both in 1928. That same year, the poet wrote Nadia, portrait of a woman in different fragments and impressions combined magic with everyday life, becoming a masterpiece. By 1929 he wrote Second Manifesto of Surrealism, without adding anything new.
During the following years, critical and revolutionary Surrealist exhibitions opened in different cities. In 1938 he traveled to Mexico and met Trotsky and Diego Rivera, and it was after this trip, in 1940, he published Anthology of Black Humor, which was banned by the censors. In 1941 he embarked on the "Capitaine-Paul-Lemerle" to Martinique, where he interned in a camp. After leaving bail he traveled to New York and remained in exile for five years, with artists such as Marcel Duchamp and Max Ernst. That same year World War II broke out. It is in this period of his life that Breton founded in New York magazine VVV. Upon returning to France, the writer was interested in the occult and in 1945 Arcane 17. Breton regularly published articles and various essays until his death on September 28, 1966, when asthmatic problems ended the life of the "patriarch of the Surrealists". His remains were buried in the cemetery of Batignolles, where lies a rock star on a tombstone, the French epitaph: "Je recherche du temps heat" (I seek the gold of time).